Page images
PDF
EPUB
[graphic][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors]

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1891.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, MILITARY, AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC
DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERA-
TURE, SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SERIES, VOL. XVI.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XXXI.

NEW YORK:

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET.

COPYRIGHT, 1892,

By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.

PREFACE.

PERHAPS for American readers the most interesting article in this volume is that on the "Navy of the United States," written by a naval officer. It is supplementary to the similar article in the "Annual Cyclopædia" for 1888, and comes down to date with a complete description of our naval force, actual and building. In the articles on Chili and the United States the reader may see how near we came to having use for a powerful navy in the year 1891. The census article of 1890 is supplemented by another in this volume, showing the results of the latest compilations at the Census Office; and the articles on such States of the Union as have any considerable colored population contain tables showing census by races.

The Canadian articles are illustrated with a double-page colored map of the Northwest Provinces, which with the map of the Maritime Provinces in the volume for 1889, and that of Ontario in the volume for 1890, covers all of British North America except the province of Quebec.

The article "Cities, American, Recent Growth of," describes sixty-four cities, some of which have sprung up in the wilderness within two or three years. An article on the "Earth, Area and Population of," gives the latest computations of the geographers.

The approaching anniversary of the discovery of the continent is noted by an interesting illustrated article on "Columbus's First Landfall," as well as by the description, under "United States," of the preparations at Chicago for the great World's Fair. How the question of participating in that enterprise was debated in some of the States, and what has been done by each, may be read in the State articles.

The recent advances in photography are set forth by Alexander Black, an enthusiastic photographer and student of the art. Ballooning as it is to-day is described by Prof. Samuel A. King, the most experienced of American aëronauts, who has made three hundred ascensions. The efforts to produce rain by artificial means are detailed under that title by Col. Charles L. Norton; and many things in the way of material improvements will be found under the title of "Patents."

In the way of moral reform much, it is hoped, has been done by the legisla tion in many States requiring temperance education in the public schools; and a history of the movement is contributed to this volume by the Rev. Joseph Cook, the well-known lecturer. The student of literature will find much to

interest him not only in the regular literature articles, but in the special articles on Lowell, Lytton, and Melville, the discussion of "New Dictionaries," by Prof. March, and the description of Oahspe, the Spiritualist bible; and the student of art will, of course, turn to "Fine Arts in 1891."

Among the regular articles of interest and importance are: In science, "Astronomy," "Chemistry," "Physiology," "Physics," "Metallurgy," "National Academy of Science," and the account of meetings of the several "Associations for the Advancement of Science"; in religion, those showing the year's growth in the various churches; in finance and commerce, the "Financial Review of 1891," "United States Finances," "Commerce and Navigation of the United States," and the treasury and debt statement in articles on various countries.

Among the special articles not already mentioned, "Archæology," "Farmers' Congress," "Hudson River, Improvements in," and "Manual Training" are noteworthy. The personal articles include, besides the three authors mentioned. above, one on Speaker Crisp, of the United States House of Representatives, one on Gen. Sherman, one on Gen. Johnston, one on Jules Grévy, one on Gen. Von Moltke, one on Sir John A. Macdonald, one on Meissonier, the painter, and an unusually large group of sketches-under the title "Obituaries"—of eminent men who passed away during the year. The dead of the year 1891 include Carl I, of Würtemberg, Kalakaua I, of Hawaii, Pedro II, of Brazil, and Tamasese, of Samoa-besides the two ex-Presidents, Balmaceda, of Chili, and Grévy, of France; the princes Baudouin and the two Bonapartes; the statesmen, Parnell, Earl Granville, Bradlaugh, W. H. Smith, Windthorst, Sir John Macdonald, Madhava Rao, Hannibal Hamlin, Windom, and J. E. McDonald; the clergymen, Freppel, Magee, Rotelle, Simon, Crosby, Gilmour, Loughlin, Preston, and Wadhams; the authors, Kinglake, Lytton, Boisgobey, the two Lowells, Lossing, and Parton; the inventors, Lebel, Hobbs, and Maynard; the soldiers, Sherman, Johnston, Moltke, Boulanger, Connor, and Sibley; the naval officers, Porter, Carter, Pattison, and Ingraham; the players, Barrett, Florence, Sullivan, Fisher, Edwards, Emmet, Emma Abbott, and Mrs. Forrest; the artists, Meissonier and McEntee; the scientists, Leidy, Le Conte, Winchell, Hilgard, and Ferrel; the philanthropists, Pratt, Mrs. Stuart, and the Duke of Devonshire. Other interesting characters, in themselves or in their circumstances, here sketched are P. T. Barnum, Mrs. Hopkins-Searles, Mrs. Polk, Madame Blavatsky, Albert Pike, Charles Devens, Thomas J. Conant, and Samuel D. Burchard.

The illustrations are more numerous than in any other volume of the series. They include two colored plates, besides the large map, three fine engravings on steel, and an unusual number of vignette portraits in the text. Pains have been taken to profit by the suggestions of those who habitually use this series for reference to improve the regular articles in some details, and it is hoped that the present volume will exhibit an advance in keeping with the time.

NEW YORK, April 19, 1892.

« PreviousContinue »