Page images
PDF
EPUB

A VOCABULARY OF SOME PRINCIPAL KANTIAN AND

OTHER METAPHYSICAL TERMS.

The most remarkable division of the human mind, in Kant's system is, that into: Vernunft. The Intuitional Faculty, or Reason, which he divides

into theoretical and practical, and which gives birth to Ideas, (Ideen) the highest perceptions of the mind, which are innate,

but stimulated into action by Experience. Verstand. Understanding or Intellect; also divided into theore

tical and practical ; the parent of Conceptions or Notions (Begriffe), which are the generalizations of Thought, and mediate representations of things. They are divided into conceptions derived from Experience, and conceptions de

rived from the Understanding itself. Under the operations of the mind we find the following terms: Anschauung, rendered, in this edition, by Intuitional and Sensa

tional Perception, gives immediate representations of things. Vorstellung. Representation (the Greek partagia), applies to

Intuitional and Sensational Perceptions, and also to con

ceptions which are their generalizations. Erkenntniss. Cognition, representing the active co-operation of

the Intellect bearing on the object presented by Sensational

and Intuitional Perception. Gefühl has been translated Emotion and Feeling. Wissen. Science; sometimes Knowledge, but never Cognition.

A marked feature of Kant's, and indeed of all modern German philosophy, is the division of the universe of things into Subjective and Objective. The Subjective implies the internal individual element, in percep

tion, feeling, and knowledge. It must be referred to its centre and source ;-Das Ich, translated the Ego, I or Me,

implying the Percipient Self-hood. The Objective is the externally-caused element in our perception

and knowledge, derivable from the Nicht-IchNon-Ego; or in plain English, from without.

Another broad distinction in the Transcendental School is that between Das Seyn, translated Esse, or Being, and signifying bare, empty

Existence, admitting of no predicates; and Das Wesen. Real concrete Existence, or Essence manifested in

Qualified or Conditional Nature. Das Werden. The Esse in a state of action, i. e. active Exist

ence; differing from it as dynamical from static electricity, Das Absolute, the Absolute, explains itself as the contrast to the

Relative, and implies the Ground and Real Principal and

Basis of all things. The editor has also been reduced to the necessity of coining a few words, in order to give an adequate rendering of the author's thoughts. Thus he has translatedDenkbarkeit. Thinkableness; Capacity of being thought. Erkennt. Cognized ; (a word for which we have the sanction of

Sir William Hamilton.). Teleologisch = Teleological. The science of the adaptation of means

to ends. Final Causes. Apodiktik = Apodiktik. Demonstration. Pädagogik = Pædagogik. The Science of Education. Asthetik = Æsthetics. Theory of the Fine Arts. Propädeutik = Propedeutik. Introductory Preparation Moment = Momentum. This term was borrowed from Mechanics

by Hegel (See his Wissenschaft der Logik, vol 3, p. 104, ed. 1841). He employs it to denote the two contending forces which are mutually dependent, and whose contradiction forms an equation. Hence his formula Esse = Nothing. Here Esse and Nothing are momentums, giving birth to Werden, i.e. Existence. Thus the momentum contributes to the same oneness of operation in contradictory forces that we see in Mechanics, amidst contrast and diversity, in weight

and distance, in the case of the balance. Potenz. Potency or degree. (Schelling's term for the Serial

Order).

PAGE

....

...

....

....

....

....

3, More complete Systems proceeding from the School of

Socrates

101

1. Plato

101

2. Aristotle

112

3. Epicurus

126

4. Zeno and the Stoics

133

5. New Academy

143

Chapter III. Philosophy among the Romans; and Neo-Platonism

to the time of John of Damascus (from 60 B.C. to the end of the

VIIIth Century after Christ). Propagation of Grecian Philosophy. 147

1. Cicero

152

2. Roman Epicureans

153

3. Stoics and Cynics

.... 154

4. Peripatetics

.... 158

5. New Pythagoreans

159

6. Neo-Platonists

161

7. Scepticism of the Empiric Schcol

163

8. Philosophic Doctrines of the Jews and Gentiles

168

1. Philo of Alexandria

170

2. The Cabbalists

171

3. The Gnostics ....

173

9. Plotinus

177

10. Porphyry, Iamblichus, and Proclus

187

11. Patristic Philosophy. Christian Eclectics

194

PART THE SECOND.-Second PERIOD.—The Middle Ages.

(The Scholastic System.) From the IXth to XVIth Century.

General View of Scholasticism.

209

1. First Period of Scholastic Philosophy. From Alcuin to

Anselm

214

2. Second Period. From Roscellin to the end of the XIIth

Century

218

3. Third Period. From Alexander of Hales to Occam

224

4. Fourth Period. From Occam to the end of the XVth Century 243

PART THE THIRD.. THIRD PERIOD. (DECLINE OF THE

SCHOLASTIC Philosophy.) From the XVth to the end of the

XVIth Century

250

1. Revival of Letters

253

2. Renewal of Ancient Systems

255

3. Cabbalism, Magic, and Theosophy

256

1. Raymond Lulli, Cornelius Agrippa, &c.

261

2. Paracelsus

262

3. Cardan

263

4. Original Philosophical Systems

270

1. Giordano Bruno

273

2. Montaigne, &c

279

....

....

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »